The German Resistance movement consisted of several disparate political and ideological strands, which represented different classes of German society and were seldom able to work together – indeed for much of the period there was little or no contact between the different strands of resistance. One strand was the underground networks of the banned Social Democrats (SPD) and Communists (KPD). Another strand was resistance based on minorities within the Christian churches, both Catholic and Protestant. Their role was mostly symbolic – a small minority of Christian clergy spoke out against the regime, such as the Protestant pastors Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Niemöller (the latter after having initially supported Hitler), and the Catholic Bishop Clemens von Galen, and their example inspired some acts of overt resistance, such as that of the White Rose student group in Munich. A third strand might be called the "unorganized resistance" — individual Germans or small groups of people acting in defiance of government policies or orders, or in ways seen as subversive of the Nazi system. Most notably, these included a significant number of Germans who helped Jews survive the Nazi Holocaust by hiding them, obtaining papers for them or in others ways aiding them. More than 300 Germans have been recognised for this kind of activity.[6] It also included, particularly in the later years of the regime, informal networks of young Germans who evaded serving in the Hitler Youth and defied the cultural policies of the Nazis in various ways. Finally there was the resistance network within the German state machinery itself, centered in the Army, the Foreign Office and the military intelligence organisation, the Abwehr.

Books: Reference (non-lending)
940.5303 ENC The Encyclopedia of World War II vol 4, p1338 and 1635 White Rose

TT FES SOPH Sophie Scholl : the final days (A dramatization of the final days of Sophie Scholl, one of the most famous members of the German World War II anti-Nazi resistance movement, The White Rose)

Tauranga City Libraries subscribes through EPIC to:
**History Reference Centre** - the phrase Anti-Nazi movements brings up a lot of Reference items while the Periodicals tab opened with an article about the White Rose movement. Also includes articles about individuals, notably Dietrich Bonhoeffer.
Access to this data base is available through the Tauranga City Libraries website

Spartacus Educational - The White Rose
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - - The White Rose
Wikipedia - - Edelweiss Pirates
Holocaust Memorial Day Trust - - Swing Kids